Follow Us:

Everything You Need To Know About the Human Eye

The eye is one of the most complex organisms in the human body. Despite being just over 2cm in diameter, it has over 2 million moving parts and can distinguish over 2.7 million colors.

At Market Mall Optometry, our eye doctors are experts in the human eye, their function and the range of eye conditions that can affect our patients.

Learn More

How the Eye Works

The eye works a lot like a camera. By focusing images through a series of lenses, our eyes allow us to see and comprehend the world around us.

Some of the most important structures in the eye include:

Cornea This is the transparent tissue covering the front of the eye that allows light to travel through.
Iris The iris is a ring of muscles in the colored part of the eye that controls the size of your pupil.
Pupil An opening in the centre of the iris that changes size in order to control the amount of light entering your eye.
Sclera The sclera is the white part of your eye. It is composed of fibrous tissue that protects the inner workings of the eye.
Lens Located directly behind the pupil, the lens works to focus light rays onto the retina.
Retina The retina is one of the most important parts of the eye. It is the membrane located at the back of the eye that changes light into nerve signals.
Rods & Cones These are special cells used by the retina to process light and are responsible for vision at low light levels.
Fovea A small spot located in the centre of the retina that contains only cone cells. It allows us to see things clearly.
Optic Nerve A bundle of nerve fibres that carries messages from the eyes to the brain.
Macula A small and highly sensitive part of the retina responsible for central vision, allowing a person to see shapes, colors and details clearly.

Common Eye Conditions

Human eyes may be highly advanced, but they are still susceptible to a number of problems, especially in the early stages of development.

That’s why it’s important to visit a kid’s’ eye doctor early on to detect and treat any eye conditions and ensure your child’s eyes and vision remain healthy.

Common eye conditions affecting children

Many eye conditions that cause difficulties later in life can be easily detected and treated in early visits to the kid’s eye doctor. This includes:


  1. Strabismus

More often referred to as crossed eyes, this condition results from a lack of coordination between eye muscles and results in eyes which point in different directions.

A qualified kid’s eye doctor will be able to diagnose and recommend several treatment options to successfully treat strabismus.

Learn More


  1. Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a very common eye condition that affects your ability to see things close up and further away. It is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea or eye lens.

Visiting a kid’s eye doctor can ensure your child receives the appropriate treatment to rectify their blurry vision including eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Learn More


  1. Amblyopia

More typically known as ‘lazy eye,’ amblyopia is one of the leading causes of vision loss in children. It develops due to poor visual experiences in childhood, resulting in under-stimulated nerve pathways between the retina and the brain.

Visiting a kid’s eye doctor as early as possible is crucial to prevent any loss of vision and successfully treat the condition.

Learn More

Common eye conditions affecting adults

Just as certain eye conditions can develop in early childhood, age can also result in your vision becoming more susceptible to certain visual problems including:


  1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

AMD is a leading cause of vision loss in patients over the age of 60 and is related to the breakdown of the eye’s macula.

While there is no cure for this condition, your eye doctor can recommend very successful treatment options to prevent any vision loss.

Learn More


  1. Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in Canada and is associated with irreversible damage to the optic nerve due to a buildup of fluid in the eye.

Because the early signs of glaucoma are difficult to detect, it is important to visit your eye doctor for regular checkups. Early detection and management of this condition can prevent further progression and vision loss.

Learn More

Learn More

To learn more about our comprehensive eye care services and how our eye doctors can help protect your vision, contact our Calgary eye clinic today at 403-286-4884 or contact us by our website.

Share This Post:

Related Posts

Contact Market Mall Optometry Today!

We are located next to Milestones by the North entrance of Market Mall.
Our knowledgable and professional staff can answer all your questions. Call us today at 403-286-4884 or fill out the form below:

Market Mall Optometry
Have Questions? Call Us Today At

TopProductsVisit UsContact UsBook Online
TopVisit UsServicesBook OnlineCall Us